Grundkonfiguration des Systems


  • Alle Pakete updaten
    • apt-get update
      apt-get -u -o APT::Force-LoopBreak=true upgrade
  • ~/bin anlegen für eigene Scripts
  • Nützliche Pakete
    • apt-get install bzip2 unzip less patch traceroute ssh vim locate dnsutils host telnet lynx wget make
  • Zeiten für automatische Scripts in /etc/crontab anpassen


  • If you just typed in a really long, complicated command and managed to mess it up, you can use fc (fix command) to load said command in your default editor.
  • Ctrl + A – jump to the beginning of the line
  • Ctrl + E – jump to the end of the line
  • Ctrl + U – clear the line
  • Ctrl + L – clear the screen
  • Ctrl + W – delete last word
  • Ctrl + K – delete to the end of the line
  • Alt + T – swap current word with previous (also Esc, T)
  • Alt + F – jump one word forward (also Esc, F)
  • Alt + B – jump one word backward (also Esc, B)
  • Alt + U – uppercase till the end of line (also Esc, U)
  • Alt + u – lowercase till the end of line (also Esc, u)
  • Alt +. – insert last argument (also Esc, .)
  • Ctrl + R – reverse incremental history search
  • Ctrl + X, Ctrl + E – open default text editor to edit a command


export PS1='\u:\w\$ '                 # Prompt anpassen
export PATH=${PATH}:~/bin             # eigene Scripts in den PATH
umask 022
export LS_OPTIONS='--color=auto'      # 'ls' Ausgabe farbig machen
eval "`dircolors`"
alias ls='ls $LS_OPTIONS'
alias ll='ls $LS_OPTIONS -l'
alias l='ls $LS_OPTIONS -lA'
alias vi='vim'                        # immer vim nutzen
alias cdsrc='cd /usr/local/src'
bash -c "echo -ne '\033]0;`hostname`\007'" # send hostname to PuTTY
# save all the histories 
export HISTFILESIZE = 1000000 
export HISTSIZE = 1000000
# don't put duplicate lines or empty spaces in the history 
export HISTCONTROL=ignoreboth 
# combine multiline commands in history 
shopt -s cmdhist
# merge session histories 
shopt -s histappend
# enable colors 
eval "`dircolors -b`" 
# force ls to always use color and type indicators 
alias ls ='ls -hF --color=auto' 
# make the dir command work kinda like in windows (long format) 
alias dir ='ls --color=auto --format =long' 
# make grep highlight results using color 
export GREP_OPTIONS ='--color=auto' 
# colorful man pages 
export LESS_TERMCAP_mb=$'\E[01;31m' 
export LESS_TERMCAP_md=$'\E[01;31m' 
export LESS_TERMCAP_me=$'\E[0m' 
export LESS_TERMCAP_se=$'\E[0m' 
# end the info box 
export LESS_TERMCAP_so=$'\E[01;42;30m' 
# begin the info box 
export LESS_TERMCAP_ue=$'\E[0m' 
export LESS_TERMCAP_us =$'\E[01;32m'
# use colordiff instead of diff if available 
command -v colordiff >/dev/null 2 >&1 && alias diff="colordiff -u" 
# use htop instead of top if installed 
command -v htop >/dev/null 2 >&1 && alias top=htop



set wrap
set tabstop=4
set shiftwidth=4
set expandtab
set autoindent
set wildchar=<Tab>
set nonumber
set foldmethod=marker
set hidden
set wmh=0
filetype on


" This line should not be removed as it ensures that various options are
" properly set to work with the Vim-related packages available in Debian.
runtime! debian.vim

syntax on

set autoindent         " always set autoindenting on
set textwidth=0        " Don't wrap words by default
set nobackup           " Don't keep a backup file
set viminfo='20,\"50   " read/write a .viminfo file, don't store more than 50 lines of registers
set history=50         " keep 50 lines of command line history
set ruler              " show the cursor position all the time
set nopaste
set pastetoggle=<F2>

" Suffixes that get lower priority when doing tab completion for filenames.
" These are files we are not likely to want to edit or read.
set suffixes=.bak,~,.swp,.o,.info,.aux,.log,.dvi,.bbl,.blg,.brf,.cb,.ind,.idx,.ilg,.inx,.out,.toc

" If using a dark background within the editing area and syntax highlighting
" turn on this option as well
set background=dark

" Uncomment the following to have Vim jump to the last position when
" reopening a file
if has("autocmd")
  au BufReadPost * if line("'\"") > 0 && line("'\"") <= line("$")
    \| exe "normal g'\"" | endif

" Uncomment the following to have Vim load indentation rules according to the
" detected filetype. Per default Debian Vim only load filetype specific
" plugins.
if has("autocmd")
  filetype plugin on
  filetype indent on

" The following are commented out as they cause vim to behave a lot
" differently from regular Vi. They are highly recommended though.
set showcmd         " Show (partial) command in status line.
set showmatch       " Show matching brackets.
set ignorecase      " Do case insensitive matching
"set smartcase      " Do smart case matching
set incsearch       " Incremental search
set autowrite       " Automatically save before commands like :next and :make
"set hidden         " Hide buffers when they are abandoned
"set mouse=a        " Enable mouse usage (all modes) in terminals
set hlsearch

" Konfiguration für Syntax Highlighting => HTML
let use_xhtml = 1
let html_number_lines = 1
let html_use_css = 1


Meine Logfiles werden mit logrotate wöchentlich gesichert und zwar in das Verzeichnis eines hierfür angelegten FTP-Benutzers. So kann ich die Logs regelmäßig auf meinem Heim-PC sichern. Eine Konfigurationsdatei für logrotate für die Systemmeldungen sieht z.B. so aus:

/var/log/messages {
        olddir /home/ftp/backup/logs/syslog
        rotate 52
        create 700 ftpuser ftpusers
linux/grundkonfiguration.txt · Zuletzt geändert: 2014-04-05 11:42 (Externe Bearbeitung)